breeding, mixed species
|Equidae||Equus grevyi||Grevy's Zebra||3 +|
|Orygini||Oryx gazella||Oryx Antelope||2 +|
|Reduncinae||Cobus leche||Litschi Waterbok||5 +|
|Rhinocerotidae||Ceratotherium simum||Southern White Rhino||2.3 +|
|Testudinidae||Geochelone sulcata||African Spurred Tortoise||5|
The African Savannah was built in 1991. It included a large exhibit for mixed species, a separate outdoor enclosure for rhinoceros and a rhinoceros barn with visitor access. In 2001 the mixed-species exhibit was expanded by a third and a second holding building (off-exhibit) with an outdoor enclosure for rhinos was erected. By having two holding buildings, Zoo Salzburg can keep five white rhinoceroses and their offspring. Rhinoceros are exhibited both in their separate enclosures and in the adjacent mixed-species savannah. Additional to the rhinoceros, antelopes and waterbock are exhibited in the savannah to give the impression of an African savannah. A group of lemurs lives in each of the rhinceros buildings using it during the night and in winter. Otherwise they roam freely in the outdoor enclosure. The indoor rhinoceros exhibit also houses tortoises, that have a small adjacent yard, where visitors can get in touch with them.
The savannah area occupies 10,217 m2. In addition, there are two outdoor exhibits for only rhinos at 1,081 and 578 m2. There is also an off-exhibit yard for rhinos at 287 m2. The indoor rhino exhibit is 188 m2 and a second barn for holding rhinos (off-exhibit) is 114 m2. There is a 48 m2 barn and 67 m2 yard for hoofstock on the savannah.
Space allocation in square meters:
|use||indoors||outdoors|| total exhibit |
|accessible|| total ||accessible|| total |
EUR 800,000 including -1 % for design.
The original savannah (1991) cost 619,000 EUR and the savannah expansion (2001) cost 181,000 EUR.
Beginning: November 1990
- Design: DI Reiss, Salzburg, Austria
- Design: Zoo Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Beginning: February 1991
Existing natural vegetation and native plants.
FEATURES DEDICATED TO ANIMALS:
Large boulders and logs in the rhino areas can be moved around and manipulated by the animals, which helps them develop their horns. A water pond is provided in the larger rhino exhibit while the rhinos are able to build their own mud holes on the savannah. Both barns are heated.
FEATURES DEDICATED TO KEEPERS:
Two barns and three outdoor enclosures (in addition to the savannah) dedicated to rhinos allow for a lot of flexibility in moving and holding animals. This is in fact necessary since the zoo has two bulls that cannot be kept together. The newer barn is specially designed for treating rhinos (collection of semen, artificial insemination)and is used in the zoo's breeding program. Shoulder-high poles surround areas where the keeper has to stand in the exhibit (i.e. to open and close gates) to protect the keeper from the strong animals. A ring of stones in the savannah performs the same function for keepers. Here they give demonstrations on animal skin care for visitors. Small holes in the rock wall beside one of the rhino yards allow the vet to shoot an immunization gun at an animal from outside the enclosure, if necessary.
FEATURES DEDICATED TO VISITORS:
Barriers into the savannah are very discreet, as are the barns - grass roofs make the buildings blend in to the landscape. When the tortoises are outdoors, visitors can touch them. The path around the savannah is shady.
A number of installations help visitors understand rhino research projects. On several panels visitors learn about measures necessary to conserve rhinos. A video shows an artificial insemination of a rhino. A game teaches how to differentiate between individual rhinos by recognizing the specific patterns of lips and horns of each animal. A rhino skeleton tells the story of illegal rhino poaching.
The new holding building provides veterinarians with optimal conditions for their research. Each animal is fed in its own barn to avoid competition for food. The number of rhinos on the savannah is varied depending on weather conditions, with less animals in wet weather conditions, so as to protect the grass.
During a research project on the artificial insemination of rhinos knowledge was also gained on how to get sperm from rhino bulls and how to anesthesize rhinos which is a precondition for the treatment of these animals.
Zoo Salzburg engages in a project on improving fertility of Southern white rhinoceros together with the zoos in Vienna and Berlin. This is to work towards preventing extinction of the species.
Effective drainage was achieved on the site by simply creating "dry river beds" of stone. These catch excess water, keeping the grass from becoming torn-up by animals' hoofs and preventing run-off from flowing into adjacent areas where it would cause erosion or spread animal waste.
All construction material is from local sites.
|©Ammann AG, 2002|
|©Ammann AG, 2002|
|Southern white rhinceros (1)|
|©Zoo Salzburg, 2000, |
|View from East (3)|
|View from South (4)|
|Second rhino house (13)|
|Water dish (19)|
|Access to the second rhino house (21)|